Algae: Additional Information

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Assorted References

    association with


      formation of


          aquatic ecosystems

          scientific study

            research by

              Additional Reading

              Ecology and phycology

              Works that provide an introduction to algae include F.E. Round, The Ecology of Algae (1981); Catriona L. Hurd et al., Seaweed Ecology and Physiology, 2nd ed. (2014); Robert Edward Lee, Phycology, 4th ed. (2008); Linda E. Graham, James M. Graham, and Lee W. Wilcox, Algae, 2nd ed. (2009); Laura Barsanti and Paolo Gualtieri, Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology, 2nd ed. (2014); and Colin S. Reynolds, The Ecology of Phytoplankton (2006).


              Various groups of algae are studied in greater detail in J.C. Green, B.S.C. Leadbeater, and W.L. Diver (eds.), The Chromophyte Algae: Problems and Perspectives (1989); Carmelo R. Tomas and Grethe R. Hasle (eds.), Identifying Marine Phytoplankton (1997); F.E. Round, R.M. Crawford, and D.G. Mann, The Diatoms: Biology and Morphology of the Genera (1990, reissued 2007); Hilda Canter-Lund and John W.G. Lund, Freshwater Algae: Their Microscopic World Explored (1995); B.S.C. Leadbeater and J.C. Green (eds.), The Flagellates: Unity, Diversity, and Evolution (2000); John D. Wehr, Robert G. Sheath, and J. Patrick Kociolek (eds.), Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification, 2nd ed. (2015); Terumitsu Hori, An Illustrated Atlas of the Life History of Algae, 3 vol. (1994); Edna Granéli and Jefferson T. Turner (eds.), Ecology of Harmful Algae (2006); and Joseph Seckbach (ed.), Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments (2007).

              Genetics and evolution

              Analyses of the genetics and evolution of algae are found in Juliet Brodie and Jane Lewis (eds.), Unravelling the Algae: The Past, Present, and Future of Algae Systematics (2007); and Feng Chen and Yue Jiang (eds.), Algae and Their Biotechnological Potential (2001).

              Article Contributors

              Primary Contributors

              • Robert A. Andersen
                Director, Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Coeditor of Chrysophytes: Aspects and Problems.
              • Ralph A. Lewin
                Professor Emeritus of Marine Biology, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.

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